Étiquette : anandamide

The cannabinoids : An overview. Therapeutic implications in vomiting and nausea after cancer chemotherapy, in appetite promotion, in multiple sclerosis and in neuroprotection, R. Mechoulam & L. Hanus, 2001

The cannabinoids : An overview. Therapeutic implications in vomiting and nausea after cancer chemotherapy, in appetite promotion, in multiple sclerosis and in neuroprotection R. Mechoulam PhD, L Hanušs PhD Pain Research Management, 2001, 6, (2), 67-73. Doi : 10.1155/2001/183057   The present paper describes the historical use of cannabis, starting with its use in Assyria and China. Recent advances in the understanding of the molecular basis of cannabis action are explained, including the identification of the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, as well as the isolation of endogenous cannabinoids from the brain and periphery. The use of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antivomiting and antinausea drug for cancer [...]

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Endocannabinoid System, Aleksandra Tarasiuka et al., 2019

Endocannabinoid System Aleksandra Tarasiuka, Maciej Salagaa, and Jakub Fichna Encyclopedia of Gastroenterology, 2nd Edition, 2019 © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-801238-3.65635-0 1   Introduction 1 Cannabinoids and Their Role in the Physiological and Pathophysiological Processes in the GI Tract 3 Physiological Conditions 3 Gut motility 3 Gastric secretion and emptying 3 Pathophysiological Conditions 4 IBS 4 IBD 5 Colon cancer 5 Peptic ulcer disease 5 Endocannabinoid System and Its Interplay With Other Systems 5 Cholecystokinin 5 Endovanilloids 6 Opioids 6 Endocannabinoid System and Gut Microbiota 6 Conclusion 7 Acknowledgments 7 References Introduction Endocannabinoid system (ECS) is one of the crucial physiological systems that may be targeted to improve human health. Endocannabinoids and their receptors are localized in various organs (heart, lungs, urinary bladder, [...]

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CBD Isolates Vs. Full-Spectrum CBD, Martin A. LEE, projectCBD.org, 2015

CBD Isolates Vs. Full-Spectrum CBD Martin A. Lee On February 22, 2015 https://www.projectcbd.org/science/cbd-isolates-vs-full-spectrum-cbd A groundbreaking study has documented the superior therapeutic properties of whole plant CBD-rich cannabis extract as compared to single-molecule CBD.   A groundbreaking study from Israel has documented the superior therapeutic properties of whole plant CBD-rich cannabis extract as compared to single-molecule cannabidiol (CBD). Published in the journal Pharmacology & Pharmacy (Feb. 2015), the article directly challenges one of the sacred cows of Big Pharma and the medical-industrial complex—the notion that “crude” botanical preparations are inherently low grade and less effective than pure, single-molecule compounds. Entitled “Overcoming the Bell-Shaped Dose-Response of Cannabidiol by Using Cannabis [...]

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CBD & the Psychedelic Receptor, Lex Pelger, projectCBD.org, 2019

CBD & the Psychedelic Receptor Lex Pelger On March 11, 2018 (Updated on April 16, 2019) https://www.projectcbd.org/science/cbd-psychedelic-receptor CBD and LSD bind to the same serotonin receptor, which mediates psychedelic altered states. But cannabidiol has anti-psychotic properties and doesn't cause hallucinations. In a shorthand that drives scientists mad, serotonin is often called ‘the neurotransmitter of happiness.’ This tag is especially troublesome as more and more flaws become apparent in the ‘serotonin hypothesis’ of depression – the idea that depression is caused by a serotonin deficit, which a pill (a serotonin reuptake inhibitor) could correct.1  Serotonin is a complex molecule in the brain and the [...]

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A Chocolate a Day Keeps Depression Away ?, Megan Brooks et al., 2019

A Chocolate a Day Keeps Depression Away ?  Megan Brooks, Laurie Barclay Medscape, 13 / 09 /2019 https://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/917963   Clinical Context Accumulating evidence suggests that dietary factors, such as eating chocolate, may affect depressive symptoms. The potential mood-enhancing properties of chocolate may relate to its orosensory properties, psychoactive ingredients, and activation of neural reward pathways. However, only a few studies have analyzed associations between chocolate consumption and depressive symptoms, with conflicting results. The goal of this analysis was to evaluate associations between chocolate consumption and depressive symptoms in a large, representative sample of US adults enrolled in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) between [...]

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Effects of endocannabinoid neurotransmission modulators on brain stimulation reward, Styliani Vlachou et al., 2006

Effects of endocannabinoid neurotransmission modulators on brain stimulation reward Styliani Vlachou, George G. Nomikos & George Panagis Psychopharmacology, 2006, 188, 293–305 Doi : 10.1007/s00213-006-0506-0   Abstract Rationale : The endogenous cannabinoid system is responsive to the neurobiological actions of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other cannabinoid ligands. While numerous studies have focused on the behavioral and pharmacological effects of THC and cannabinoid agonists in experimental animals, most recent work focuses on compounds that modulate endocannabinoid neurotransmission. However, the relevant studies concerning the ability of endocannabinoid modulators to modify reward processes in experimental animals remain rather scarce. Objectives : The present study examined the effects of drugs modulating endocannabinoid neurotransmission on [...]

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2-Linoleoylglycerol Is a Partial Agonist of the Human Cannabinoid Type 1 Receptor that Can Suppress 2-Arachidonolyglycerol and Anandamide Activity,

2-Linoleoylglycerol Is a Partial Agonist of the Human Cannabinoid Type 1 Receptor that Can Suppress 2-Arachidonolyglycerol and Anandamide Activity Leanne Lu, Gareth Williams, and Patrick Doherty* Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, 2019 Doi : 10.1089/can.2019.0030   Abstract Introduction : The cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor and cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptor are widely expressed in the body and anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) are their best characterized endogenous ligands. The diacylglycerol lipases (diacylglycerol lipase alpha and diacylglycerol lipase beta) not only synthesize essentially all the 2-AG in the body but also generate other monoacylglycerols, including 2- linoleoylglycerol (2-LG). This lipid has been proposed to modulate endocannabinoid (eCB) [...]

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Endocannabinoid System in Neurological Disorders, Roberta Ranieri et al., 2016

Endocannabinoid System in Neurological Disorders (Endocannabinoid System and Neurodegeneration) Roberta Ranieri, Chiara Laezza, Maurizio Bifulco, Daniela Marasco and Anna Maria Malfitano Recent Patents on CNS Drug Discovery, 2015, Vol. 10, No. 2, 24 p. Abstract : Background : Several studies support the evidence that the endocannabinoid system and cannabimimetic drugs might have therapeutic potential in numerous pathologies. These pathologies range from neurological disorders, atherosclerosis, stroke, cancer to obesity/metabolic syndrome and others. Methods : In this paper we review the endocannabinoid system signaling and its alteration in neurodegenerative disorders like multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease and discuss the main findings about the use [...]

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Role of the Endocannabinoid System in the Pathophysiology of Schizophrenia: Implications for Pharmacological Intervention, F.M. Leweke et al., 2018

Role of the Endocannabinoid System in the Pathophysiology of Schizophrenia: Implications for Pharmacological Intervention F.M. Leweke, J.K. Mueller, B.Lange, S. Fritze, C.E. Topor, D. Koethe, C. Rohleder CNS Drugs, 2018 Jul;32(7):605-619. doi: 10.1007/s40263-018-0539-z. Abstract The term schizophrenia describes a group of multifaceted psychiatric conditions causing significant impairment of the quality of life of affected patients. Although multiple pharmacological treatment options exist, e.g. first- or second-generation antipsychotics, these therapeutics often cause disturbing side effects, such as extrapyramidal symptoms, prolactin increase, sexual dysfunction and/or metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, cognitive impairments and negative symptoms, two factors significantly influencing the course and outcome, are not sufficiently addressed by the available [...]

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Childhood trauma and being at-risk for psychosis are associated with higher peripheral endocannabinoids, E. Appiah-Kusi et al., 2019

Childhood trauma and being at-risk for psychosis are associated with higher peripheral endocannabinoids E. Appiah-Kusi, R. Wilson, M.Colizzi, E. Foglia, Sagnik Bhattacharyya, et al. Psychological Medicine, 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291719001946 Published online by Cambridge University Press: 19 August 2019 Abstract BackgroundEvidence has been accumulating regarding alterations in components of the endocannabinoid system in patients with psychosis. Of all the putative risk factors associated with psychosis, being at clinical high-risk for psychosis (CHR) has the strongest association with the onset of psychosis, and exposure to childhood trauma has been linked to an increased risk of development of psychotic disorder. We aimed to investigate whether being at-risk for [...]

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