Catégorie : Neurobiologie

Circulating endocannabinoids and genetic polymorphisms as predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity : heterogeneity in a community-based cohort, Terri A. deRoon-Cassini et al., 2022

Circulating endocannabinoids and genetic polymorphisms as predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity : heterogeneity in a community-based cohort Terri A. deRoon-Cassini, Carisa L. Bergner, Samantha A. Chesney, Nicholas R. Schumann, Tara Sander Lee, Karen J. Brasel and Cecilia J. Hillard Translational Psychiatry, 2022, 12, 48, 1-12. Doi : 10.1038/s41398-022-01808-1   The endocannabinoid signaling system (ECSS) regulates fear and anxiety. While ECSS hypoactivity can contribute to symptoms of established post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the role of the ECSS in PTSD development following trauma is unknown. A prospective, longitudinal cohort study of 170 individuals (47% non-Hispanic Caucasian and 70% male) treated at a level 1 trauma [...]

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Long-Term Efficacy for Epidiolex in Resistant Epilepsy, Pauline Anderson, Medscape.com, 2018.

Long-Term Efficacy for Epidiolex in Resistant Epilepsy Pauline Anderson  Medscape - Dec 17, 2018. https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/906653   NEW ORLEANS — Results of open-label extension trials show the recently approved drug Epidiolex (GW Pharmaceuticals), a purified formulation of cannabidiol (CBD), is safe and effective beyond a year in patients with Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome (LGS) and Dravet Syndrome, two rare and resistant epilepsy types. "We now have long-term data to say that it still works; the efficacy is not going to drop off, and more importantly, it's still going to be safe and you're not going to learn anything new down the road," study author Anup D. Patel, MD, Section Chief of Pediatric Neurology, [...]

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The neurobiology of psychedelic drugs : implications for the treatment of mood disorders, Franz X. Vollenweider and Michael Kometer, 2010

The neurobiology of psychedelic drugs : implications for the treatment of mood disorders Franz X. Vollenweider and Michael Kometer Perspectives, www.nature.com, 2010, 11, 642-651.   Abstract After a pause of nearly 40 years in research into the effects of psychedelic drugs, recent advances in our understanding of the neurobiology of psychedelics, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin and ketamine have led to renewed interest in the clinical potential of psychedelics in the treatment of various psychiatric disorders. Recent behavioural and neuroimaging data show that psychedelics modulate neural circuits that have been implicated in mood and affective disorders, and can reduce the clinical symptoms of [...]

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Serotonin and brain function : a tale of two receptors, RL Carhart-Harris and DJ Nutt, 2017

Serotonin and brain function : a tale of two receptors RL Carhart-Harris and DJ Nutt Journal of Psychopharmacology, 2017, Vol. 31, (9), 1091–1120. Doi : 10.1177/0269881117725915   Abstract Previous attempts to identify a unified theory of brain serotonin function have largely failed to achieve consensus. In this present synthesis, we integrate previous perspectives with new and older data to create a novel bipartite model centred on the view that serotonin neurotransmission enhances two distinct adaptive responses to adversity, mediated in large part by its two most prevalent and researched brain receptors: the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors. We propose that passive coping (i.e. tolerating a source of stress) [...]

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Bridging the Gap ? Altered Thalamocortical Connectivity in Psychotic and Psychedelic States, Mihai Avram et al., 2021

Bridging the Gap ? Altered Thalamocortical Connectivity in Psychotic and Psychedelic States Mihai Avram, Helena Rogg, Alexandra Korda, Christina Andreou, Felix Müller and Stefan Borgwardt Frontiers in Psychiatry, 2021, Volume 12, Article 706017, 1-13. Doi : 10.3389/fpsyt.2021.706017   Psychiatry has a well-established tradition of comparing drug-induced experiences to psychotic symptoms, based on shared phenomena such as altered perceptions. The present review focuses on experiences induced by classic psychedelics, which are substances capable of eliciting powerful psychoactive effects, characterized by distortions/alterations of several neurocognitive processes (e.g., hallucinations). Herein we refer to such experiences as psychedelic states. Psychosis is a clinical syndrome defined by impaired reality testing, [...]

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Rediscovering Psilocybin as an Antidepressive Treatment Strategy, Rene Zeiss et al., 2021

Rediscovering Psilocybin as an Antidepressive Treatment Strategy Rene Zeiss, Maximilian Gahr and Heiko Graf 􏰀􏰁􏰂􏰀􏰃 􏰅􏰈􏰉􏰊Pharmaceuticals, 2021, 14, 985, 1-14. doi : 10.3390/ph14100985   Abstract : There has recently been a renewal of interest in psychedelic research on the use of psilocybin in psychiatric treatment and, in particular, for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). Several state-of-the-art studies have provided new insight into the mechanisms of action of psilocybin and its therapeutic potential. Nevertheless, many questions remain unanswered. With this review, we provide an overview of the current state of research on the potential mechanisms of psilocybin, its antidepressant potential, and the associated risks [...]

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Cannabidiol modulation of oxidative stress and signalling, Sonia R. Pereira et al., 2021

Cannabidiol modulation of oxidative stress and signalling Sonia R. Pereira, Becky Hackett, David N. O’Driscoll, Melody Cui Sun and Eric J. Downer Neuronal Signaling, 2021, 5,  NS20200080 doi : 10.1042/NS20200080   Cannabidiol (CBD), one of the primary non-euphoric components in the Cannabis sativa L. plant, has undergone clinical development over the last number of years as a therapeutic for patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndromes. This phytocannabinoid demonstrates functional and pharmacological diversity, and research data indicate that CBD is a comparable antioxidant to common antioxidants. This review gathers the latest knowledge regarding the impact of CBD on oxidative signalling, with focus on the proclivity [...]

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Cannabinoids and Neurogenesis : The Promised Solution for Neurodegeneration ?, Andrea Valeri and Emanuela Mazzon, 2021

Cannabinoids and Neurogenesis : The Promised Solution for Neurodegeneration ? Andrea Valeri and Emanuela Mazzon Molecules, 2021, 26, 6313, 1-26. doi : 10.3390/molecules26206313   Abstract : The concept of neurons as irreplaceable cells does not hold true today. Experiments and evidence of neurogenesis, also, in the adult brain give hope that some compounds or drugs can enhance this process, helping to reverse the outcomes of diseases or traumas that once were thought to be everlasting. Cannabinoids, both from natural and artificial origins, already proved to have several beneficial effects (e.g., anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidants and analgesic action), but also capacity to increase neuronal population, by replacing the [...]

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In vitro and in vivo pharmacological activity of minor cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa, Ayat Zagzoog et al., 2020

In vitro and in vivo pharmacological activity of minor cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa Ayat Zagzoog, Kawthar A. Mohamed, Hye Ji J. Kim, Eunhyun D. Kim, Connor S. Frank, Tallan Black, Pramodkumar D. Jadhav, Larry A. Holbrook & Robert B. Laprairie Scientific Reports, www.nature.com, 2020, 10, 20405, 1-13. Doi : 10.1038/s41598-020-77175-y   The Cannabis sativa plant contains more than 120 cannabinoids. With the exceptions of Δ9-tetrahydro-cannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), comparatively little is known about the pharmacology of the less-abundant plant-derived (phyto) cannabinoids. The best-studied transducers of cannabinoid-dependent effects are type 1 and type 2 cannabinoid receptors (CB1R, CB2R). Partial agonism of CB1R by Δ9-THC is [...]

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