Catégorie : Neurobiologie

Renseignements destinés aux professionnels de la santé : Le cannabis (marijuana, marihuana) et les cannabinoïdes, Santé Canada, dernière version octobre 2018

Renseignements destinés aux professionnels de la santé : Le cannabis (marijuana, marihuana) et les cannabinoïdes (Version PDF - 2,690 Ko) https://www.canada.ca/fr/sante-canada/services/drogues-medicaments/cannabis/renseignements-medecins/renseignements-destines-professionnels-sante-cannabis-cannabinoides.html Santé Canada Auteur : Hanan Abramovici Ph.D. Co-auteurs : Sophie-Anne Lamour, Ph.D. et George Mammen, Ph.D. Nous republions cet excellent document de Santé Canada, et surtout, le résumé des indications reconnues, et envisagées, du cannabis thérapeutique.   Aperçu des énoncés récapitulatifs Les énoncés récapitulatifs suivants visent à résumer le contenu des sections 4.0 (Usages thérapeutiques possibles) et 7.0 (Effets indésirables) et leurs sous-sections respectives. Les énoncés récapitulatifs peuvent être également trouvés dans leurs sections et sous-sections respectives dans le corps même du document. Remarque: la plupart des études [...]

Lire la suite

Acute effects of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on resting state brain function and their modulation by COMT genotype, Matthijs G. Bossong et al., 2019

Acute effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on resting state brain function and their modulation by COMT genotype Matthijs G. Bossong, Hendrika H. van Hell, Chris D. Schubart, Wesley van Saane, Tabitha A. Iseger, Gerry Jager, Matthias J.P. van Osch, J. Martijn Jansma, René S. Kahn, Marco P. Boks, Nick F. Ramsey European Neuropsychopharmacology, 2019, 13, 56, 1–11 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2019.03.010   Abstract Cannabis produces a broad range of acute, dose-dependent psychotropic effects. Only a limited number of neuroimaging studies have mapped these effects by examining the impact of cannabis on resting state brain neurophysiology. Moreover, how genetic variation influences the acute effects of cannabis on resting state brain function [...]

Lire la suite

Heavy Cannabis Use, Dependence and the Brain : A Clinical Perspective, KROON E. et al., 2019

Heavy Cannabis Use, Dependence and the Brain: A Clinical Perspective KROON E., KUHNS L., HOCH E., COUSIJN J. Addictions,  2019 Aug 13. doi: 10.1111/add.14776. PMID: 31408248 Abstract AIMS : To summarize and evaluate our knowledge of the relationship between heavy cannabis use, Cannabis Use Disorder (CUD), and the brain. METHODS : Narrative review of relevant literature identified through existing systematic reviews, meta-analyses and a PubMed search. Epidemiology, clinical representations, potential causal mechanisms, assessments, treatment and prognosis are discussed. RESULTS : Although causality is unclear, heavy and dependent cannabis use is consistently associated with a high prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders and learning and memory impairments that seem [...]

Lire la suite

Multiple receptors contribute to the behavioral effects of indoleamine hallucinogens, Adam L. Halberstadt & Mark A. Geyer, 2011

Multiple receptors contribute to the behavioral effects of indoleamine hallucinogens Adam L. Halberstadt & Mark A. Geyer Neuropharmacology, 2011, 61, (3), 364–381. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2011.01.017.   Abstract Serotonergic hallucinogens produce profound changes in perception, mood, and cognition. These drugs include phenylalkylamines such as mescaline and 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM), and indoleamines such as (+)-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and psilocybin. Despite their differences in chemical structure, the two classes of hallucinogens produce remarkably similar subjective effects in humans, and induce cross-tolerance. The phenylalkylamine hallucinogens are selective 5-HT2 receptor agonists, whereas the indoleamines are relatively nonselective for serotonin (5-HT) receptors. There is extensive evidence, from both animal and human studies, that the [...]

Lire la suite

Endocannabinoid signaling in psychiatric disorders: a review of positron emission tomography studies, Matthew E. Sloan et al., 2018

Endocannabinoid signaling in psychiatric disorders: a review of positron emission tomography studies Matthew E. Sloan, Caroline W. Grant, Joshua L. Gowin, Vijay A. Ramchandani and Bernard Le Foll Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 2018, 0, 1–9; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41401-018-0081-z   Endocannabinoid signaling is implicated in an array of psychopathologies ranging from anxiety to psychosis and addiction. In recent years, radiotracers targeting the endocannabinoid system have been used in positron emission tomography (PET) studies to determine whether individuals with psychiatric disorders display altered endocannabinoid signaling. We comprehensively reviewed PET studies examining differences in endocannabinoid signaling between individuals with psychiatric illness and healthy controls. Published studies evaluated individuals with five psychiatric [...]

Lire la suite

Anandamide administration alone and after inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) increases dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens shell in rats, Marcello Solinas et al., 2006

Anandamide administration alone and after inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) increases dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens shell in rats Marcello Solinas, Zuzana Justinova, Steven R. Goldberg and Gianluigi Tanda Journal of Neurochemistry, 2006, 98, 408–419. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2006.03880.x   Abstract Although endogenous cannabinoid systems have been implicated in the modulation of the rewarding effects of abused drugs and food, little is known about the direct effects of endogenous ligands for cannabinoid receptors on brain reward processes. Here we show for the first time that the intravenous administration of anandamide, an endogenous ligand for cannabinoid receptors, and its longer-lasting synthetic analog methanandamide, increase the extracellular dopamine [...]

Lire la suite

Reefer Madness : A Case of Cannabis-Induced Psychosis, Matthew C. Ballenberger et al., 2019

Reefer Madness : A Case of Cannabis-Induced Psychosis Matthew C. Ballenberger,  Robert D. Glatter,  Daniel P. Klein,  Steven Mandel, Medscape Psychiatry,  August 15, 2019 Clinical Presentation A 32-year-old woman with a history of iron-deficiency anemia was brought in by ambulance because of altered mental status. The patient's sister and boyfriend reported that 1 day before presentation, the patient had ingested a marijuana edible and a few hours later developed fatigue and nausea, followed by at least 15 episodes of nonbloody, nonbilious, projectile vomiting throughout the night. In the morning, she became very pale, her lips turned blue, and she became stiff, losing consciousness for [...]

Lire la suite

The administration of psilocybin to healthy, hallucinogen-experienced volunteers in a mock-functional magnetic resonnance imaging environment : a preliminary investigation of tolerability, Robin L. Carhart-Harris et al., 2010

The administration of psilocybin to healthy, hallucinogen-experienced volunteers in a mock-functional magnetic resonnance imaging environment : a preliminary investigation of tolerability Robin L. Carhart-Harris et al., Journal of Psychopharmacology, 2010, 1-6 DOI: 10.1177/0269881110367445   Abstract This study sought to assess the tolerability of intravenously administered psilocybin in healthy, hallucinogen-experienced volunteers in a mock-magnetic resonance imaging environment as a preliminary stage to a controlled investigation using functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore the effects of psilocybin on cerebral blood flow and activity. The present pilot study demonstrated that up to 2 mg of psilocybin delivered as a slow intravenous injection produces short-lived but typical drug effects that [...]

Lire la suite

Implications for psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy : functional magnetic resonnance imaging study with psilocybin, Robin L. Carhart-Harris et al., 2012

Implications for psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy : a functional magnetic resonance imaging study with psilocybin R. L. Carhart-Harris, R. Leech, T. M. Williams, D. Erritzoe, N. Abbasi, T. Bargiotas, P. Hobden, D. J. Sharp, J. Evans, A. Feilding, R. G. Wise and D. J. Nutt British Journal of Psychiatry, 2012, 200, 238-244. Doi : 10.1192/bjp.bp.111.103309   Background Psilocybin is a classic psychedelic drug that has a history of use in psychotherapy. One of the rationales for its use was that it aids emotional insight by lowering psychological defences. Aims To test the hypothesis that psilocybin facilitates access to personal memories and emotions by comparing subjective and neural responses to positive [...]

Lire la suite

Functional Connectivity Measures After Psilocybin Inform a Novel Hypothesis of Early Psychosis, Robin L. Carhart-Harris et al., 2012

Functional Connectivity Measures After Psilocybin Inform a Novel Hypothesis of Early Psychosis Robin L. Carhart-Harris, Robert Leech, David Erritzoe, Tim M. Williams, James M. Stone, John Evans, David J. Sharp, Amanda Feilding, Richard G. Wise, and David J. Nutt Schizophrenia Bulletin, 2012 doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbs117   model of psychosis. This study measured the effects of psilocybin on resting-state network and thalamo-cortical functional connectivity (FC) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Fifteen healthy volunteers received intravenous infusions of psilocybin and placebo in 2 task-free resting-state scans. Primary analyses focused on changes in FC between the default-mode- (DMN) and task-positive network (TPN). Spontaneous activity in the DMN is orthogonal [...]

Lire la suite