Étiquette : serotonine

Recent Advances in the Neuropsychopharmacology of Serotonergic Hallucinogens, Adam L. Halberstadt, 2015

Recent Advances in the Neuropsychopharmacology of Serotonergic Hallucinogens Adam L. Halberstadt Behavioral Brain Research, 2015, 15, 277, 99–120. doi : 10.1016/j.bbr.2014.07.016   Abstract Serotonergic hallucinogens, such as (+)-lysergic acid diethylamide, psilocybin, and mescaline, are somewhat enigmatic substances. Although these drugs are derived from multiple chemical families, they all produce remarkably similar effects in animals and humans, and they show cross-tolerance. This article reviews the evidence demonstrating the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor is the primary site of hallucinogen action. The 5-HT2A receptor is responsible for mediating the effects of hallucinogens in human subjects, as well as in animal behavioral paradigms such as drug discrimination, head twitch response, prepulse [...]

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Astrocytes in rapid ketamine antidepressant action, Matjaž Stenovec et al., 2020

Astrocytes in rapid ketamine antidepressant action Matjaž Stenovec, Baoman Li, Alexei Verkhratsky, Robert Zorec Neuropharmacology, 2020, 173, 108158 Doi : 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2020.108158   H I G H L I G H T S • Ketamine inhibits calcium signalling and enhances cAMP production in astroglia. • Ketamine suppresses exocytosis of gliosignalling molecules and Kir4.1. • Ketamine elevates cholesterol content in the plasmalemma specifically in astrocytes. A B S T R A C T Ketamine, a general anaesthetic and psychotomimetic drug, exerts rapid, potent and long-lasting antidepressant effect, albeit the cellular and molecular mechanisms of this action are yet to be discovered. Besides targeting neuronal NMDARs fundamental for synaptic transmission, ketamine affects the [...]

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Dynamic coupling of whole-brain neuronal and neurotransmitter systems, Morten L. Kringelbach et al., 2020

Dynamic coupling of whole-brain neuronal and neurotransmitter systems Morten L. Kringelbach, Josephine Cruzat, Joana Cabral, Gitte Moos Knudsen, Robin Carhart-Harris, Peter C. Whybrow Nikos K. Logothetis, and Gustavo Deco PNAS, 2020, 1-11 doi : 10.1073/pnas.1921475117   Remarkable progress has come from whole-brain models linking anatomy and function. Paradoxically, it is not clear how a neuronal dynamical system running in the fixed human anatomical connectome can give rise to the rich changes in the functional repertoire associated with human brain function, which is impossible to explain through long-term plasticity. Neuromodulation evolved to allow for such flexibility by dynamically updating the effectivity of the fixed anatomical connectivity. [...]

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Cannabidiol Administered During Peri-Adolescence Prevents Behavioral Abnormalities in an Animal Model of Schizophrenia, Fernanda F. Peres et al., 2018

Cannabidiol Administered During Peri-Adolescence Prevents Behavioral Abnormalities in an Animal Model of Schizophrenia Fernanda F. Peres, Mariana C. Diana, Raquel Levin, Mayra A. Suiama, Valéria Almeida, Ana M. Vendramini, Camila M. Santos, Antônio W. Zuardi, Jaime E. C. Hallak, José A. Crippa and Vanessa C. Abílio Frontiers in Pharmacology, 2018, 9, article 901. Doi : 10.3389/fphar.2018.00901   Schizophrenia is considered a debilitating neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorder and its pharmacotherapy remains problematic without recent major advances. The development of interventions able to prevent the emergence of schizophrenia would therefore represent an enormous progress. Here, we investigated whether treatment with cannabidiol (CBD – a compound of Cannabis sativa that [...]

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What to Know About Peyote Use, Buddy T., VeryWellMind.com, 2020

What to Know About Peyote Use By   Buddy T Medically reviewed by   Steven Gans, MD VeryWell Mind.com, Updated on February 14, 2020 https://www.verywellmind.com/how-long-does-peyote-stay-in-your-system-80310 kedsirin jaidee / Getty Images   Peyote (Lophophora williamsii or Lophophora diffusa) is a small, spineless cactus that is found in the southwest United States, northern Mexico and Peru. The plant has been used for about six thousand years by native tribes for religious and healing purposes. Peyote's principal active ingredient is mescaline, a psychedelic compound that can also be man-made through chemical synthesis.1 The peyote buttons, protrusions found on the tops of the cactus plants, are usually dried and then chewed or [...]

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Rethinking Therapeutic Strategies for Anorexia Nervosa: Insights From Psychedelic Medicine and Animal Models, Claire J. Foldi et al., 2020

Rethinking Therapeutic Strategies for Anorexia Nervosa: Insights From Psychedelic Medicine and Animal Models Claire J. Foldi, Paul Liknaitzky, Martin Williams, Brian J. Oldfield Frontiers in Neuroscience, 2020 | Volume 14 | Article 43 : 1-8 doi : 10.3389/fnins.2020.00043   Anorexia nervosa (AN) has the highest mortality rate of any psychiatric disease, yet available pharmacological treatments are largely ineffective due, in part, to an inadequate understanding of the neurobiological drivers that underpin the condition. The recent resurgence of research into the clinical applications of psychedelic medicine for a range of mental disorders has highlighted the potential for classical psychedelics, including psilocybin, to alleviate symptoms of AN [...]

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Serotonin 2A Receptor Signaling Underlies LSDinduced Alteration of the Neural Response to Dynamic Changes in Music, Frederick S. Barrett et al., 2018

Serotonin 2A Receptor Signaling Underlies LSD-induced Alteration of the Neural Response to Dynamic Changes in Music Frederick S. Barrett, Katrin H. Preller, Marcus Herdener, Petr Janata and Franz X. Vollenweider Cerebral Cortex, November 2018, 28, 3939–3950. doi : 10.1093/cercor/bhx257   Abstract Classic psychedelic drugs (serotonin 2A, or 5HT2A, receptor agonists) have notable effects on music listening. In the current report, blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal was collected during music listening in 25 healthy adults after administration of placebo, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), and LSD pretreated with the 5HT2A antagonist ketanserin, to investigate the role of 5HT2A receptor signaling in the neural response to the time-varying tonal [...]

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Role of the 5-HT2A Receptor in Self- and Other-Initiated Social Interaction in Lysergic Acid Diethylamide-Induced States : A Pharmacological fMRI Study, Katrin H. Preller et al., 2018

Role of the 5-HT2A Receptor in Self- and Other-Initiated Social Interaction in Lysergic Acid Diethylamide-Induced States : A Pharmacological fMRI Study Katrin H. Preller, Leonhard Schilbach, Thomas Pokorny, Jan Flemming, Erich Seifritz, and Franz X. Vollenweider The Journal of Neuroscience, 2018, 38, (14), 3603–3611. Doi : 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1939-17.2018   Distortions of self-experience are critical symptoms of psychiatric disorders and have detrimental effects on social interactions. In light of the immense need for improved and targeted interventions for social impairments, it is important to better understand the neurochemical substrates of social interaction abilities. We therefore investigated the pharmacological and neural correlates of self- and other-initiated social interaction. In [...]

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The Varieties of the Psychedelic Experience: A Preliminary Study of the Association Between the Reported Subjective Effects and the Binding Affinity Profiles of Substituted Phenethylamines and Tryptamines, Federico Zamberlan et al., 2018

The Varieties of the Psychedelic Experience: A Preliminary Study of the Association Between the Reported Subjective Effects and the Binding Affinity Profiles of Substituted Phenethylamines and Tryptamines Federico Zamberlan, Camila Sanz, Rocío Martínez Vivot, Carla Pallavicini, Fire Erowid, Earth Erowid and Enzo Tagliazucchi Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, 2018, 12, 54. doi : 10.3389/fnint.2018.00054   Classic psychedelics are substances of paramount cultural and neuroscientific importance. A distinctive feature of psychedelic drugs is the wide range of potential subjective effects they can elicit, known to be deeply influenced by the internal state of the user (“set”) and the surroundings (“setting”). The observation of crosstolerance and a series [...]

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Modern Clinical Research on LSD, Matthias E Liechti, 2017

Modern Clinical Research on LSD Matthias E Liechti Neuropsychopharmacology, 2017, 42, 2114–2127. doi : 10.1038/npp.2017.86   All modern clinical studies using the classic hallucinogen lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in healthy subjects or patients in the last 25 years are reviewed herein. There were five recent studies in healthy participants and one in patients. In a controlled setting, LSD acutely induced bliss, audiovisual synesthesia, altered meaning of perceptions, derealization, depersonalization, and mystical experiences. These subjective effects of LSD were mediated by the 5-HT2A receptor. LSD increased feelings of closeness to others, openness, trust, and suggestibility. LSD impaired the recognition of sad and fearful faces, reduced left [...]

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