Étiquette : phénoménologie

The Consciousness Research of Stanislav Grof, Richard Yensen & Donna Dryer, 1998

The Consciousness Research of Stanislav Grof : A Cosmic Portal Beyond Individuality By Richard Yensen, Ph.D. and Donna A. Dryer, M.D., M.P.H. ©1998 Richard Yensen & Donna Dryer     I. Introduction Stanislav Grof began his research in Prague, Czechoslovakia, as a psychiatric resident, in the late 1950’s. His initial observations seemed to confirm and offer a laboratory proof for many of the basic tenets of Freudian psychoanalytic thought. At that time his conclusion was politically unsettling because psychoanalysis was repressed in the iron curtain countries. Forty years later the outcome of Grof’s continued research is a theoretical framework for understanding human consciousness. His theory has [...]

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Classic Hallucinogens and Mystical Experiences : Phenomenology and Neural Correlates, Frederick S. Barrett & Roland R. Griffiths, 2018

Classic Hallucinogens and Mystical Experiences : Phenomenology and Neural Correlates Frederick S. Barrett, Roland R. Griffiths Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences, 2018, 36, 393–430. doi : 10.1007/7854_2017_474   Abstract This chapter begins with a brief review of descriptions and definitions of mystical-type experiences and the historical connection between classic hallucinogens and mystical experiences. The chapter then explores the empirical literature on experiences with classic hallucinogens in which claims about mystical or religious experiences have been made. A psychometrically validated questionnaire is described for the reliable measurement of mystical-type experiences occasioned by classic hallucinogens. Controlled laboratory studies show that under double-blind conditions that provide significant controls for [...]

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The Varieties of the Psychedelic Experience: A Preliminary Study of the Association Between the Reported Subjective Effects and the Binding Affinity Profiles of Substituted Phenethylamines and Tryptamines, Federico Zamberlan et al., 2018

The Varieties of the Psychedelic Experience: A Preliminary Study of the Association Between the Reported Subjective Effects and the Binding Affinity Profiles of Substituted Phenethylamines and Tryptamines Federico Zamberlan, Camila Sanz, Rocío Martínez Vivot, Carla Pallavicini, Fire Erowid, Earth Erowid and Enzo Tagliazucchi Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, 2018, 12, 54. doi : 10.3389/fnint.2018.00054   Classic psychedelics are substances of paramount cultural and neuroscientific importance. A distinctive feature of psychedelic drugs is the wide range of potential subjective effects they can elicit, known to be deeply influenced by the internal state of the user (“set”) and the surroundings (“setting”). The observation of crosstolerance and a series [...]

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A phenomenology of subjectively relevant experiences induced by ayahuasca in Upper Amazon vegetalismo tourism, Tom John Wolff et al., 2018

A phenomenology of subjectively relevant experiences induced by ayahuasca in Upper Amazon vegetalismo tourism Tom John Wolff, Simon Ruffell, Nigel Netzband and Torsten Passie Journal of Psychedelic Studies, 2018 Doi : 10.1556/2054.2019.007   Aims : This heuristic study reports observations on the phenomenology of ayahuasca experiences of nine foreign tourist participants of an ayahuasca retreat in Peru. Methods : Narrative interviews, reflecting individual experiences after ayahuasca “night ceremony,” have been analyzed by qualitative content analysis using a data-driven strategy in order to extract themes and categories inherent in the interviews. Previously, a demographic questionnaire was given. The dose–response connection was uncontrolled, which is typical for this [...]

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A Comparative Review of the Neuro- Psychopharmacology of Hallucinogen-Induced Altered States of Consciousness : The Uniqueness of Some Hallucinogens, Ümit Sayin, 2012

A Comparative Review of the Neuro- Psychopharmacology of Hallucinogen-Induced Altered States of Consciousness : The Uniqueness of Some Hallucinogens Ümit Sayin NeuroQuantology, June 2012, Volume 10, Issue 2,  316-340. eISSN 1303-5150   ABSTRACT Altered states of consciousness induced by hallucinogens (H-ASC) is still a vaguely understood phenomenon. Taken the diverse psychological effects they exert, the main mechanism of action of hallucinogens; LSD, ibogaine, THC, PCP, MDMA, methamphetamine, mescaline, psilocybin and DMT, of which psychological effects are discussed in the article, are not properly understood and explained by the modern methods of neuroscience due to the lack of vigorous research. The involvement of some receptors, such as, [...]

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The Religious Significance of Entheogenic Drugs, Hugh Asher,

The Religious Significance of Entheogenic Drugs Hugh Asher More Info: This is my unpublished Master's Dissertation.   Abstract This paper examines the use of psychoactive substances such as Psilocybin, Mescaline, and LSD as adjuncts to mystical, religious or spiritual experiences. There is an analysis of the psychological changes and the changes in perception that these substances cause and how these can be interpreted as contributing to religious or spiritual enlightenment. There is also a discussion on the nature of what could be considered a religious experience. An overview of the use of such ‘entheogenic’ drugs from an historical perspective follows, looking specifically at the use of [...]

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Changes in Spirituality Among Ayahuasca Ceremony Novice Participants, Stephen M. Trichter, 2006

Changes in Spirituality Among Ayahuasca Ceremony Novice Participants Stephen M. Trichter A Clinical Research Project Submitted to the Faculty of Argosy University, San Francisco Bay Area In partial fulfillment of the requirements for The degree of Doctor of Psychology Point Richmond, California Copyright May 2006 _____________________________   CHAPTER I : INTRODUCTION Context of the Problem Psychiatry and clinical psychology have developed with the aim of relieving maladaptive psychological symptoms, partially through the use of medical technology. Presently, the field encourages the use of anti-depressants, anti-anxiety agents, and antipsychotics to relieve symptoms from which patients suffer. Despite continuous breakthroughs in psychiatric medicine, many writers feel that this approach is questionable. For [...]

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The evolutionary neuroanthropology of consciousness : exploring the diversity of conscious states across cultures. An interview with Michael Winkelman, Michael Winkelman & Martin E. Fortier, 2019

The evolutionary neuroanthropology of consciousness : exploring the diversity of conscious states across cultures. An interview with Michael Winkelman. Michael Winkelman & Martin E. Fortier ALIUS Bulletin, 2019, 3, 45-97. doi : 10.34700/krg3-zk35   Abstract In this interview, Michael Winkelman and Martin Fortier discuss the extent to which consciousness is grounded in deep evolutionary mechanisms and can be enculturated. First, the main tenets of two neuroanthropological approaches to consciousness and culture are outlined. Next, the upsides and downsides of evolutionary psychology are examined; the fruitfulness of this approach in the study of cultural phenomena such as shamanism is debated. The authors then discuss the promises of [...]

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Chapter 12 : Gnosis Potency : DMT Breakthroughs and Paragnosis, Graham St John, 2018

Chapter 12 : Gnosis Potency : DMT Breakthroughs and Paragnosis Graham St John in B. C. Labate, C. Cavnar (eds.), "Plant Medicines, Healing and Psychedelic Science", Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018 doi : 10.1007/978-3-319-76720-8_12   Abstract DMT (N,N-dimethyltryptamine) is a powerful tryptamine that has experienced growing appeal in the last decade, independent from ayahuasca, the Amazonian visionary brew in which it is an integral ingredient. Investigating user reports available from literary and online sources, this chapter focuses on the gnosis potency associated with the DMT “breakthrough” experience. I explore the parameters of the tryptaminal state and, in particular, the extraordinary paragnosis associated with [...]

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An ontology of psychedelic entity experiences in evolutionary psychology and neurophenomenology, Michael J. Winkelman, 2018

An ontology of psychedelic entity experiences in evolutionary psychology and neurophenomenology Michael James WINKELMAN Journal of Psychedelic Studies, 2018. Doi : 10.1556/2054.2018.002   Background and aims : Psychedelic entity experiences are examined from perspectives of evolutionary psychology and neurophenomenology. Their similarities with other entity experiences illustrate the need for a general biological explanation of entity experiences. Mechanisms are proposed to involve innate modules, operators, and intelligences that underlie ordinary cognitive inferences and provide the basis for supernatural thought. Methods : Comparisons of ayahuasca and dimethyltryptamine (DMT) entity experiences with other types of entity experiences show their fundamental similarities to conceptions of spirit guides, mythological beings, divinities, [...]

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