Étiquette : cannabis

Long-Term Effects of Cannabis on Brain Structure, Giovanni Battistella et al., 2014

Long-Term Effects of Cannabis on Brain Structure Giovanni Battistella, Eleonora Fornari, Jean-Marie Annoni, Haithem Chtioui, Kim Dao, Marie Fabritius, Bernard Favrat, Jean-Frederic Mall, Philippe Maeder and Christian Giroud Neuropsychopharmacology, 2014, 39, 2041–2048. doi:10.1038/npp.2014.67   Abstract The dose-dependent toxicity of the main psychoactive component of cannabis in brain regions rich in cannabinoid CB1 receptors is well known in animal studies. However, research in humans does not show common findings across studies regarding the brain regions that are affected after long-term exposure to cannabis. In the present study, we investigate (using Voxel-based Morphometry) gray matter changes in a group of regular cannabis smokers in comparison with a group of [...]

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Cannabidiol as a potential treatment for psychosis, Cathy Davies and Sagnik Bhattacharyya, 2019

Cannabidiol as a potential treatment for psychosis Cathy Davies and Sagnik Bhattacharyya Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology, 2019, Vol. 9, 1–16 https://doi.org/10.1177%2F2045125319881916   Abstract : Psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia are heterogeneous and often debilitating conditions that contribute substantially to the global burden of disease. The introduction of dopamine D2 receptor antagonists in the 1950s revolutionised the treatment of psychotic disorders and they remain the mainstay of our treatment arsenal for psychosis. However, traditional antipsychotics are associated with a number of side effects and a significant proportion of patients do not achieve an adequate remission of symptoms. There is therefore a need for novel interventions, particularly those with a non-D2 antagonist mechanism of [...]

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Cannabinoids and Mental Health, Part 1 : The Endocannabinoid System and Exogenous Cannabinoids, Andrew Penn, 2019

Cannabinoids and Mental Health, Part 1 : The Endocannabinoid System and Exogenous Cannabinoids Andrew Penn Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 2019, 57, 9, 7-10. Doi : 10.3928/02793695-20190813-01   ABSTRACT The increasing public acceptance of cannabis and the proliferation of cannabis products in the market-place has coincided with more patients using the drug as a substitute for psychiatric medications or as an adjunctive treatment modality for psychiatric conditions, despite limited evidence of efficacy. With a goal of furthering harm-reduction eff orts in psychiatric nursing, the current article reviews the fundamentals of the endocannabinoid system in humans and the exogenous phytocannabinoids that act on this regulatory [...]

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Effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in neuropsychiatric disorders: A review of pre-clinical and clinical findings, Sonja ELSAID, 2019

Effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in neuropsychiatric disorders: A review of pre-clinical and clinical findings. Molecular Basis of Neuropsychiatric Disorders : from Bench to Bedside Sonja ELSAID, Stefan KLOIBER, Bernard Le FOLL Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science, 2019, 167, 25-75. doi : 10.1016/bs.pmbts.2019.06.005. Cannabis sativa (cannabis) is on of the oldest plants cultivated by men. Cannabidiol (CBD) is the major non-psychomimetic compound derived from cannabis. It has been proposed to have a therapeutic potential over a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders. In this narrative review, we have summarized a selected number of pre-clinical and clinical studies, examining the effects of CBD in neuropsychiatric [...]

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Role of the Endocannabinoid System in the Pathophysiology of Schizophrenia, M. Fakhoury, 2017

Role of the Endocannabinoid System in the Pathophysiology of Schizophrenia M. Fakhoury Molecular Neurobiology, 2017, 54, (1), 768-778. doi: 10.1007/s12035-016-9697-5   ABSTRACT : The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a group of neuromodulatory lipids, enzymes, and receptors involved in numerous behavioral and physiological processes such as mood, memory, and appetite. Recently, longitudinal and postmortem studies have shown that the ECS might be involved in neuropsychiatric disorders like schizophrenia. However, despite the large amount of research, our knowledge of the ECS and its implication in this debilitating disorder is still largely limited. This review aims at providing a comprehensive overview of the current state of knowledge of the [...]

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Cannabinoids and Schizophrenia : Risks and Therapeutic Potential, Marc W. Manseau & Donald C. Goff, 2015

Cannabinoids and Schizophrenia : Risks and Therapeutic Potential Marc W. Manseau & Donald C. Goff Neurotherapeutics, 2015, 12, 816–824 DOI 10.1007/s13311-015-0382-6 # The American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics, Inc. 2015   Abstract A convergence of evidence shows that use of Cannabis sativa is associated with increased risk of developing psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia, and earlier age at which psychotic symptoms first manifest. Cannabis exposure during adolescence is most strongly associated with the onset of psychosis amongst those who are particularly vulnerable, such as those who have been exposed to child abuse and those with family histories of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia that develops after cannabis use may have a [...]

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A systematic review of the antipsychotic properties of cannabidiol in humans, T.A. Iseger & M.G. Bossong, 2015

A systematic review of the antipsychotic properties of cannabidiol in humans T.A. Iseger, M.G. Bossong Schizophrenia Research, 2015, 162, (1-3), 153-161 doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2015.01.033 Abstract Despite extensive study over the past decades, available treatments for schizophrenia are only modestly effective and cause serious metabolic and neurological side effects. Therefore, there is an urgent need for novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of schizophrenia. A highly promising new pharmacological target in the context of schizophrenia is the endocannabinoid system. Modulation of this system by the main psychoactive component in cannabis, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), induces acute psychotic effects and cognitive impairment. However, the non-psychotropic, plant-derived cannabinoid agent cannabidiol (CBD) [...]

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The Potential of Cannabidiol Treatment for Cannabis Users With Recent-Onset Psychosis, Britta Hahn, 2018

The Potential of Cannabidiol Treatment for Cannabis Users With Recent-Onset Psychosis Britta Hahn Schizophrenia Bulletin, 2018, vol. 44, no. 1, 46–53 doi:10.1093/schbul/sbx105 A major factor associated with poor prognostic outcome after a first psychotic break is cannabis misuse, which is prevalent in schizophrenia and particularly common in individuals with recent-onset psychosis. Behavioral interventions aimed at reducing cannabis use have been unsuccessful in this population. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a phytocannabinoid found in cannabis, although at low concentrations in modern-day strains. CBD has a broad pharmacological profile, but contrary to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), CBD does not activate CB1 or CB2 receptors and has at most subtle subjective [...]

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US Adult Illicit Cannabis Use, Cannabis Use Disorder, and Medical Marijuana Laws 1991-1992 to 2012-2013, Deborah S. Hasin et al., 2017

US Adult Illicit Cannabis Use, Cannabis Use Disorder, and Medical Marijuana Laws 1991-1992 to 2012-2013 Deborah S. Hasin, Aaron L. Sarvet, Magdalena Cerda, Katherine M. Keyes, Malka Stohl, Sandro Galea, Melanie M. Wall JAMA Psychiatry, 2017, 74, (6), 579–610. Doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2017.0724 PMCID: PMC5539836      PMID: 28445557 Key Points Question Are US state medical marijuana laws one of the underlying factors for increases in risk for adult cannabis use and cannabis use disorders seen since the early 1990s? Findings In this analysis using US national survey data collected in 1991-1992, 2001-2002, and 2012-2013 from 118 497 participants, the risk for cannabis use and cannabis use disorders increased at a significantly greater [...]

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Cannabis use, pain and prescription opioid use in people living with chronic non-cancer pain : Findings from a four-year prospective cohort, Gabrielle Campbell et al., 2018

Cannabis use, pain and prescription opioid use in people living with chronic non-cancer pain : Findings from a four-year prospective cohort Gabrielle Campbell, Wayne D. Hall, Amy Peacock, Nicholas Lintzeris, Raimondo Bruno, Briony Larance, Suzanne Nielsen, Milton Cohen, Gary Chan, Richard P. Mattick, Fiona Blyth, Marian Shanahan, Timothy Dobbins, Michael Farrell, Louisa Degenhardt Lancet Public Health, 2018, 3, (7): e341–e350. doi:10.1016/S2468-2667(18)30110-5.   Abstract Background : There has been growing interest in the use of cannabis and cannabinoids to treat chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP). Cannabis and cannabinoids have attracted attention because of their greater safety compared with opioids, and the possibility that their use can reduce opioid [...]

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