Étiquette : hallucinogenes

What to Know About Peyote Use, Buddy T., VeryWellMind.com, 2020

What to Know About Peyote Use By   Buddy T Medically reviewed by   Steven Gans, MD VeryWell Mind.com, Updated on February 14, 2020 https://www.verywellmind.com/how-long-does-peyote-stay-in-your-system-80310 kedsirin jaidee / Getty Images   Peyote (Lophophora williamsii or Lophophora diffusa) is a small, spineless cactus that is found in the southwest United States, northern Mexico and Peru. The plant has been used for about six thousand years by native tribes for religious and healing purposes. Peyote's principal active ingredient is mescaline, a psychedelic compound that can also be man-made through chemical synthesis.1 The peyote buttons, protrusions found on the tops of the cactus plants, are usually dried and then chewed or [...]

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Serotoninergic hallucinogens/psychedelics could be promissing treatments for depressive and anxiety disorders in end-stage cancer, Rafael Guimarães dos Santos et al., 2019

Serotoninergic hallucinogens/psychedelics could be promissing treatments for depressive and anxiety disorders in end-stage cancer Rafael Guimarães dos Santos, José Carlos Bouso and Jaime E. C. Hallak BMC Psychiatry, 2019, 19, 321, 1-4. Doi : 10.1186/s12888-019-2288-z   Abstract In a recent issue of the BMC Psychiatry, the evidence of effectiveness of treatments for psychiatric conditions in end-stage cancer patients was reviewed (Johnson, 2018). The review was comprehensive, and included traditional and non-traditional/alternative treatments, including herbal medicines and spirituality. However, evidence showing that classic or serotonergic hallucinogens/psychedelics such as psilocybin and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) could be effective treatments for depressive and anxiety disorders in end-stage cancer was not [...]

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Role of the 5-HT2A Receptor in Self- and Other-Initiated Social Interaction in Lysergic Acid Diethylamide-Induced States : A Pharmacological fMRI Study, Katrin H. Preller et al., 2018

Role of the 5-HT2A Receptor in Self- and Other-Initiated Social Interaction in Lysergic Acid Diethylamide-Induced States : A Pharmacological fMRI Study Katrin H. Preller, Leonhard Schilbach, Thomas Pokorny, Jan Flemming, Erich Seifritz, and Franz X. Vollenweider The Journal of Neuroscience, 2018, 38, (14), 3603–3611. Doi : 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1939-17.2018   Distortions of self-experience are critical symptoms of psychiatric disorders and have detrimental effects on social interactions. In light of the immense need for improved and targeted interventions for social impairments, it is important to better understand the neurochemical substrates of social interaction abilities. We therefore investigated the pharmacological and neural correlates of self- and other-initiated social interaction. In [...]

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Constructing drug effects : A history of set and setting, Ido Hartogsohn, 2017

Constructing drug effects : A history of set and setting Ido Hartogsohn Drug Science, Policy and Law, 2017, 3, (0) 1–17 Doi : 10.1177/2050324516683325   Abstract Set and setting is a term which refers to the psychological, social, and cultural parameters which shape the response to psychedelic drugs. The concept is considered fundamental to psychedelic research and has also been used to describe nonpharmacological factors which shape the effects of other agents such as alcohol, heroin, amphetamines, or cocaine. This paper reviews the history and evolution of the concept of set and setting from the 19th-century Parisian Club des Hashischins, through to 1950s psychotomimetic research on [...]

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Classic Hallucinogens and Mystical Experiences : Phenomenology and Neural Correlates, Frederick S. Barrett & Roland R. Griffiths, 2018

Classic Hallucinogens and Mystical Experiences : Phenomenology and Neural Correlates Frederick S. Barrett, Roland R. Griffiths Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences, 2018, 36, 393–430. doi : 10.1007/7854_2017_474   Abstract This chapter begins with a brief review of descriptions and definitions of mystical-type experiences and the historical connection between classic hallucinogens and mystical experiences. The chapter then explores the empirical literature on experiences with classic hallucinogens in which claims about mystical or religious experiences have been made. A psychometrically validated questionnaire is described for the reliable measurement of mystical-type experiences occasioned by classic hallucinogens. Controlled laboratory studies show that under double-blind conditions that provide significant controls for [...]

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Clinical and Toxicological Profile of NBOMes : A Systematic Review, Nino Cesar Marchi et al., 2019

Clinical and Toxicological Profile of NBOMes : A Systematic Review Nino Cesar Marchi, Juliana Nichterwitz Scherer, Letícia Schwanck Fara, Lysa Remy, Rafaela Ornel, Monique Reis, Amanda Zamboni, Mariana Paim, Taís Regina Fiorentin, Carlos Alberto Yasin Wayhs, Lisia Von Diemen, Flavio Pechansky, Felix Henrique Paim Kessler, Renata Pereira Limberger Psychosomatics, 2019 Mar - Apr, 60, (2), 129-138. doi : 10.1016/j.psym.2018.11.002   Background : NBOMes are a new class of potent hallucinogens widely present in illicit drugs. Little is known about this class of drugs, regarding its detection and clinical manifestations of intoxication. Objective : This study aims to enhance care involving NBOMes by reviewing the literature on their [...]

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The Varieties of the Psychedelic Experience: A Preliminary Study of the Association Between the Reported Subjective Effects and the Binding Affinity Profiles of Substituted Phenethylamines and Tryptamines, Federico Zamberlan et al., 2018

The Varieties of the Psychedelic Experience: A Preliminary Study of the Association Between the Reported Subjective Effects and the Binding Affinity Profiles of Substituted Phenethylamines and Tryptamines Federico Zamberlan, Camila Sanz, Rocío Martínez Vivot, Carla Pallavicini, Fire Erowid, Earth Erowid and Enzo Tagliazucchi Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, 2018, 12, 54. doi : 10.3389/fnint.2018.00054   Classic psychedelics are substances of paramount cultural and neuroscientific importance. A distinctive feature of psychedelic drugs is the wide range of potential subjective effects they can elicit, known to be deeply influenced by the internal state of the user (“set”) and the surroundings (“setting”). The observation of crosstolerance and a series [...]

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A Comparative Review of the Neuro- Psychopharmacology of Hallucinogen-Induced Altered States of Consciousness : The Uniqueness of Some Hallucinogens, Ümit Sayin, 2012

A Comparative Review of the Neuro- Psychopharmacology of Hallucinogen-Induced Altered States of Consciousness : The Uniqueness of Some Hallucinogens Ümit Sayin NeuroQuantology, June 2012, Volume 10, Issue 2,  316-340. eISSN 1303-5150   ABSTRACT Altered states of consciousness induced by hallucinogens (H-ASC) is still a vaguely understood phenomenon. Taken the diverse psychological effects they exert, the main mechanism of action of hallucinogens; LSD, ibogaine, THC, PCP, MDMA, methamphetamine, mescaline, psilocybin and DMT, of which psychological effects are discussed in the article, are not properly understood and explained by the modern methods of neuroscience due to the lack of vigorous research. The involvement of some receptors, such as, [...]

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Psychological Explorations of the Magic Mushroom (Psilocybin) Experience, Part I : Subjective Effects and Time Passage Perception, José Arturo Costa Escobar & Antonio Roazzi, 2011

Psychological Explorations of the Magic Mushroom (Psilocybin) Experience, Part I : Subjective Effects and Time Passage Perception José Arturo Costa Escobar, M.S., Antonio Roazzi, Ph.D. Neurobiologia, 2011, 74, (3-4), 81-97.   ABSTRACT Magic mushrooms are rich in the active compound psilocybin, whose activity on consciousness deeply alters cognitive functions, can promote spiritual/mystical experiences and has high biomedical and psychotherapeutic importance. Twenty-eight participants underwent a magic mushroom experience after consuming dehydrated Psilocybe cubensis mushrooms at the dosage of 55.6 mg/Kg (350 μg/kg of psilocybin). Results of subjective aspects of the experience through the Hallucinogen Rating Scale revealed equivalent dosage effects comparable to other studies and similar [...]

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Psychological Explorations of the Magic Mushroom (Psilocybin) Experience, Part II : Neuropsychological Measures José Arturo Costa Escobar & Antonio Roazzi, 2011

Psychological Explorations of the Magic Mushroom (Psilocybin) Experience, Part II : Neuropsychological Measures José Arturo Costa Escobar, M.S., Antonio Roazzi, Ph.D. Neurobiologia, 2011, 74, (3-4), 99-112.   ABSTRACT Some investigations conducted with psilocybin and mushrooms of the Psilocybe genus on the human mind point to a peculiarity of these substances to promote a special state of consciousness. The present study measured the effects of dehydrated magic mushrooms on human visual processes and memory utilizing tasks in a pre- and post-test form. We observed defi cits in visual working memory and these results were consistent with other, recent psilocybin studies. However this and other visual mechanisms [...]

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