Étiquette : CB1 recepteur

Comparison of the Neurotoxic and Seizure-Inducing Effects of Synthetic and Endogenous Cannabinoids with Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol

Comparison of the Neurotoxic and Seizure-Inducing Effects of Synthetic and Endogenous Cannabinoids with Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Chris S. Breivogel, Jacob R. Wells, Amreen Jonas, Artik H. Mistry, Morgan L. Gravley, Rajul M. Patel, Brianna E. Whithorn, and Bonnie M. Brenseke Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, 2019, Volume X, Number X DOI: 10.1089/can.2019.0003 Abstract Introduction : Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are commonly found in preparations used as recreational drugs. Although severe adverse health effects are not generally associated with cannabis use, a rising number of studies document seizures and even death after SC use. In this study, a mouse model is used to investigate the hypothesis that SCs are more [...]

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2-Linoleoylglycerol Is a Partial Agonist of the Human Cannabinoid Type 1 Receptor that Can Suppress 2-Arachidonolyglycerol and Anandamide Activity, Leanne Lu et al., 2019

2-Linoleoylglycerol Is a Partial Agonist of the Human Cannabinoid Type 1 Receptor that Can Suppress 2-Arachidonolyglycerol and Anandamide Activity Leanne Lu, Gareth Williams, and Patrick Doherty Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, 2019, Volume X, Number X Doi : 10.1089/can.2019.0030 Abstract Introduction : The cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor and cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptor are widely expressed in the body and anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) are their best characterized endogenous ligands. The diacylglycerol lipases (diacylglycerol lipase alpha and diacyl-glycerol lipase beta) not only synthesize essentially all the 2-AG in the body but also generate other monoacylglycerols, including 2-linoleoylglycerol (2-LG). This lipid has been proposed to modulate endocannabinoid [...]

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Cannabinoids, Endocannabinoids and Cancer, Daniel J. Hermanson and Lawrence J. Marnett , 2011

Cannabinoids, Endocannabinoids and Cancer Daniel J. Hermanson and Lawrence J. Marnett Cancer Metastasis Reviews, 2011, 30, (3-4), 599–612. doi:10.1007/s10555-011-9318-8.   1. Introduction 1.1 Cannabinoid Function Endocannabinoids are bioactive lipids that have a range of interesting activities mediated by two G-protein-coupled receptors (CB1 and CB2) and other putative targets [1-3]. The CB1 receptor is present in the central nervous system and mediates the psychotropic effects of exogenous cannabinoids such as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active component of marijuana. In the brain, endocannabinoids and cannabinoids combine with CB1 cannabinoid receptors on axon terminals and regulate ion channel activity and neurotransmitter release [4]. Binding to the CB1 receptor is responsible for [...]

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Could Cannabidiol be a Treatment Option for Intractable Childhood and Adolescent Epilepsy ?, Chung Mo Koo et al., 2017

Could Cannabidiol be a Treatment Option for Intractable Childhood and Adolescent Epilepsy ? Chung Mo Koo, Hoon-Chul Kang Journal of Epilepsy Research, 2017, 7, 16-20. pISSN 2233-6249 / eISSN 2233-6257 www.kes.or.kr   Epilepsy is an important disease that affects brain function, particularly in those under 3 years old. Uncontrolled seizures can affect cognitive function and quality of life. For these reasons, many trials have been conducted to investigate treatments for pediatric epilepsy. Currently, many antiepileptic drugs are available for the treatment of epilepsy, but cases of intractable epilepsy continue to exist. In the past, cannabis has been tested as a potential treatment of intractable epilepsy. Since [...]

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Adolescent‐onset heavy cannabis use associated with significantly reduced glial but not neuronal markers and glutamate levels in the hippocampus, Grace Blest‐Hopley et al., 2019

Adolescent‐onset heavy cannabis use associated with significantly reduced glial but not neuronal markers and glutamate levels in the hippocampus Grace Blest‐Hopley | Aisling O'Neill | Robin Wilson | Vincent Giampietro | David Lythgoe | Alice Egerton | Sagnik Bhattacharyya Addiction Biology, 2019, e12827, 1-11. DOI: 10.1111/adb.12827   Abstract Cannabis use has been associated with adverse mental health outcomes, the neurochemical underpinnings of which are poorly understood. Although preclinical evidence suggests glutamatergic dysfunction following cannabis exposure in several brain regions including the hippocampus, evidence from human studies have been inconsistent. We investigated the effect of persistent cannabis use on the brain levels of N‐acetyl aspartate (NAA) and myo-inositol, [...]

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Endocannabinoid signaling in psychiatric disorders: a review of positron emission tomography studies, Matthew E. Sloan et al., 2018

Endocannabinoid signaling in psychiatric disorders: a review of positron emission tomography studies Matthew E. Sloan, Caroline W. Grant, Joshua L. Gowin, Vijay A. Ramchandani and Bernard Le Foll Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 2018, 0, 1–9; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41401-018-0081-z   Endocannabinoid signaling is implicated in an array of psychopathologies ranging from anxiety to psychosis and addiction. In recent years, radiotracers targeting the endocannabinoid system have been used in positron emission tomography (PET) studies to determine whether individuals with psychiatric disorders display altered endocannabinoid signaling. We comprehensively reviewed PET studies examining differences in endocannabinoid signaling between individuals with psychiatric illness and healthy controls. Published studies evaluated individuals with five psychiatric [...]

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Anandamide administration alone and after inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) increases dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens shell in rats, Marcello Solinas et al., 2006

Anandamide administration alone and after inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) increases dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens shell in rats Marcello Solinas, Zuzana Justinova, Steven R. Goldberg and Gianluigi Tanda Journal of Neurochemistry, 2006, 98, 408–419. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2006.03880.x   Abstract Although endogenous cannabinoid systems have been implicated in the modulation of the rewarding effects of abused drugs and food, little is known about the direct effects of endogenous ligands for cannabinoid receptors on brain reward processes. Here we show for the first time that the intravenous administration of anandamide, an endogenous ligand for cannabinoid receptors, and its longer-lasting synthetic analog methanandamide, increase the extracellular dopamine [...]

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Cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 Receptor Signaling and Bias, Mikkel Soes Ibsen et al., 2017

Cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 Receptor Signaling and Bias Mikkel Soes Ibsen, Mark Connor, Michelle Glass Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, 2017, Volume 2.1, 48-60 https://doi.org/10.1089/can.2016.0037   Abstract An agonist that acts through a single receptor can activate numerous signaling pathways. Recent studies have suggested that different ligands can differentially activate these pathways by stabilizing a limited range of receptor conformations, which in turn preferentially drive different downstream signaling cascades. This concept, termed “biased signaling” represents an exciting therapeutic opportunity to target specific pathways that elicit only desired effects, while avoiding undesired effects mediated by different signaling cascades. The cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 each activate multiple pathways, [...]

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An Update on Non-CB1, Non-CB2 Cannabinoid Related G-Protein-Coupled Receptors, Paula Morales and Patricia H. Reggio, 2017

An Update on Non-CB1, Non-CB2 Cannabinoid Related G-Protein-Coupled Receptors Paula Morales and Patricia H. Reggio Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, 2017, Volume 2.1, 265-273 DOI: 10.1089/can.2017.0036   Abstract The endocannabinoid system (ECS) has been shown to be of great importance in the regulation of numerous physiological and pathological processes. To date, two Class A G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been discovered and validated as the main therapeutic targets of this system: the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1), which is the most abundant neuromodulatory receptor in the brain, and the cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2), predominantly found in the immune system among other organs and tissues. Endogenous cannabinoid receptor [...]

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Endocannabinoid Signaling and Synaptic Function, Pablo E. Castillo et al., 2012

Endocannabinoid Signaling and Synaptic Function Pablo E. Castillo, Thomas J. Younts, Andres E. Chavez, and Yuki Hashimotodani Neuron, Cell Press, 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2012.09.020   Endocannabinoids are key modulators of synaptic function. By activating cannabinoid receptors expressed in the central nervous system, these lipid messengers can regulate several neural functions and behaviors. As experimental tools advance, the repertoire of known endocannabinoid-mediated effects at the synapse, and their underlying mechanism, continues to expand. Retrograde signaling is the principal mode by which endocannabinoids mediate short- and long-term forms of plasticity at both excitatory and inhibitory synapses. However, growing evidence suggests that endocannabinoids can also signal in a nonretrograde manner. [...]

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