Étiquette : addiction

Effectiveness of Psilocybin on Depression : A Qualitative Study, Redhwan Ahmed Al-Naggar et al., 2021

Effectiveness of Psilocybin on Depression : A Qualitative Study Redhwan Ahmed Al-Naggar, Hisham Alshaikhli, Gwen Erlam Electronic Journal of General Medicine, 2021, 18, (3), em296. doi : 10.29333/ejgm/10862   ABSTRACT Introduction : Psilocybin mushroom use is well documented in spiritual and religious ceremonies globally. This drug is now the most popular in Europe and the USA. Objective : The objective of this study is to explore the experiences and effects of psilocybin on patients with depression and anxiety. Method : A qualitative study was conducted interviewing ten participants currently taking psilocybin while experiencing depression and/or anxiety. Ethical approval was obtained from the University ethics committee. Participants were recruited [...]

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Cannabinoid Addiction: Behavioral Models and Neural Correlates, Rafael Maldonado et al., 2002

Cannabinoid Addiction: Behavioral Models and Neural Correlates Rafael Maldonado and Fernando Rodriguez de Fonseca The Journal of Neuroscience, 2002, 22, (9), 3326–3331. Abstract The use of cannabis sativa preparations as recreational drugs can be traced back to the earliest civilizations. However, animal models of cannabinoid addiction allowing the exploration of neural correlates of cannabinoid abuse have been developed only recently. We review these models and the role of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor, the main target of natural cannabinoids, and its interaction with opioid and dopamine transmission in reward circuits. Extensive reviews on the molecular basis of cannabinoid action are available elsewhere (Piomelli et al., [...]

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Cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system in reward processing and addiction: from mechanisms to interventions, Rainer Spanagel, 2020

Cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system in reward processing and addiction: from mechanisms to interventions Rainer Spanagel, PhD Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 2020, 22, (3), 241-250. doi : 10.31887/DCNS.2020.22.3/rspanagel   The last decades have seen a major gain in understanding the action of cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system in reward processing and the development of addictive behavior. Cannabis-derived psychoactive compounds such as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and synthetic cannabinoids directly interact with the reward system and thereby have addictive properties. Cannabinoids induce their reinforcing properties by an increase in tonic dopamine levels through a cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor–dependent mechanism within the ventral tegmental area. Cues that are conditioned [...]

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Cannabidiol as a treatment for craving and relapse inindividuals with cocaine use disorder: a randomizedplacebo-controlled trial, Violaine Mongeau-Pérusse, et al., 2021

Cannabidiol as a treatment for craving and relapse inindividuals with cocaine use disorder: a randomized placebo-controlled trial Violaine Mongeau-Pérusse, Suzanne Brissette, Julie Bruneau, Patricia Conrod, Simon Dubreucq, Guillaume Gazil, EmmanuelStip & DidierJutras-Aswad Addiction, 2021, 116, (9), 1-12. Doi : 10.1111/add.15417   ABSTRACT Background and Aims : Cocaine use disorder (CUD) is a significant public health concern for which no efficacious phar-macologicalinterventionsare available. Cannabidiol (CBD) has attracted considerable interest as a promisingtreatmentforaddiction. This study tested CBD efficacy for reducing craving and preventing relapse in people with CUD.DesignSingle-site double-blind randomized controlled superiority trial comparing CBD with placebo. Setting and Participants : Centre Hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal, Canada. Seventy-eight [...]

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CB2 Receptor Involvement in the Treatment of Substance Use Disorders, Francisco Navarrete et al., 2021

CB2 Receptor Involvement in the Treatment of Substance Use Disorders Francisco Navarrete, María S. García-Gutiérrez, Ani Gasparyan, Daniela Navarro and Jorge Manzanares Biomolecules, 2021, 11, 1556, 1-18. Doi : 10.3390/biom11111556   Abstract The pharmacological modulation of the cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2r) has emerged as a promising potential therapeutic option in addiction. The purpose of this review was to determine the functional involvement of CB2r in the effects produced by drugs of abuse at the central nervous system (CNS) level by assessing evidence from preclinical and clinical studies. In rodents, several reports suggest the functional involvement of CB2r in the effects produced by drugs of abuse such [...]

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Involvement of the endocannabinoid system in drug addiction, Rafael Maldonado et al., 2006

Involvement of the endocannabinoid system in drug addiction, Rafael Maldonado, Olga Valverde and Fernando Berrendero Trends in Neurosciences, 2006, 29, (4), 225-232. Doi : 10.1016/j.tins.2006.01.008   Recent studies have shown that the endocannabinoid system is involved in the common neurobiological mechanism underlying drug addiction. This system participates in the primary rewarding effects of cannabinoids, nicotine, alcohol and opioids, through the release of endocannabinoids in the ventral tegmental area. Endocannabinoids are also involved in the motivation to seek drugs by a dopamine-independent mechanism, demonstrated for psychostimulants and opioids. The endocannabinoid system also participates in the common mechanisms underlying relapse to drugseeking behaviour by mediating the motivational effects [...]

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Learning to Let Go : A Cognitive-Behavioral Model of How Psychedelic Therapy Promotes Acceptance, Max Wolf et al., 2020

Learning to Let Go : A Cognitive-Behavioral Model of How Psychedelic Therapy Promotes Acceptance Max Wolff, Ricarda Evens, Lea J. Mertens, Michael Koslowski, Felix Betzler, Gerhard Gründer and Henrik Jungaberle Frontiers in Psychiatry, February 2020 | Volume 11 | Article 5, 1-13. doi : 10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00005   The efficacy of psychedelic-assisted therapies for mental disorders has been attributed to the lasting change from experiential avoidance to acceptance that these treatments appear to facilitate. This article presents a conceptual model that specifies potential psychological mechanisms underlying such change, and that shows substantial parallels between psychedelic therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy: We propose that in the carefully controlled [...]

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Novel Treatment Approaches for Substance Use Disorders : Therapeutic Use of Psychedelics and the Role of Psychotherapy, Michael Koslowski et al., 2021

Novel Treatment Approaches for Substance Use Disorders : Therapeutic Use of Psychedelics and the Role of Psychotherapy Michael Koslowski, Matthew W. Johnson, Gerhard Gründer, Felix Betzler Current Addiction Reports, 2021, 1-11. doi : 10.1007/s40429-021-00401-8   Abstract Purpose of Review : The use of psychedelics in a therapeutical setting has been reported for the treatment of various diagnoses in recent years. However, as psychedelic substances are still commonly known for their (illicit) recreational use, it may seem counterintuitive to use psychedelic therapy to treat substance use disorders. This review aims to discuss how psychedelics can promote and intensify psychotherapeutic key processes, in different approaches like psychodynamic and [...]

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Within-treatment changes in a novel addiction treatment program using traditional Amazonian medicine, David M. O’Shaughnessy et al., 2021

Within-treatment changes in a novel addiction treatment program using traditional Amazonian medicine David M. O’Shaughnessy , Ilana Berlowitz, Robin Rodd, Zoltán Sarnyai and Frances Quirk Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology, 2021, Vol. 11,  1–18 DOI : 10.1177/2045125320986634 Abstract Aims : The therapeutic use of psychedelics is regaining scientific momentum, but similarly psychoactive ethnobotanical substances have a long history of medical (and other) uses in indigenous contexts. Here we aimed to evaluate patient outcomes in a residential addiction treatment center that employs a novel combination of Western and traditional Amazonian methods. Methods : The study was observational, with repeated measures applied throughout treatment. All tests were administered in [...]

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Cannabis and Cannabinoids: Weighing the Benefits and Risks in Psychiatric Patients, Diana M. Martinez, MD Medscape .com, 2020

Cannabis and Cannabinoids: Weighing the Benefits and Risks in Psychiatric Patients Diana M. Martinez, MD Medscape .com, December 18, 2020 This transcript has been edited for clarity. Hello. I'm Diana Martinez. I'm a psychiatrist at the Columbia University Medical Center in the Department of Psychiatry. Today we'll be talking about the interaction between cannabis and psychiatric disorders. When I say "cannabis," this is really the same as marijuana. I use the term "cannabis" because this is a scientific term for the plant. I'm going to start with a brief history of cannabis. It’s been used for centuries in India as both an intoxicant and a [...]

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